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Techniques Used in Craniofacial Developmental Biology
Craniofacial development, Organ culture, Whole embryo culture, Ex utero surgery
     So does as the other parts of the body, craniofacial development involves various complex processes such as cell proliferation, cell migration, cell induction, cell differentiation and cell to cell interaction. Each of developmental process occurs in particular time. Thus, to achieve the aim of the developmental biological study, the techniques used in the study and the influence of surrounding factors on the developmental process should be considered. The technique used in developmental biology varies from simple technique in vitro to complicate technique in utero and ex utero surgery. Cell and tissue culture enables us to study in cell and tissue level, whereas organ culture can be used for studying the interaction of tissues in the organ level. Study in organ system level can be studied by whole embryo culture with limitation of time, therefore studying the fetus in the uterus by surgery through it called in utero and ex utero technique can use as a solution. This review literature is focusing on the techniques used in craniofacial developmental studies mainly done in mouse and rat. The example of the research using each technique is also given. The knowledge from this review can be a guideline for researcher to select the proper technique to study developmental in craniofacial region including tooth and supporting structures.