The aim of this study is to investigate the oral health status of dental patients with dementia and to evaluate the ability of caregivers of patients with dementia in primary oral health assessment using the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) and dysphagia detection using the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Nine dementia patients with their caregivers were voluntarily gave consented to participate in the study. Their oral health status and tongue pressure were recorded by oral examination and tongue pressure sensor device. Socio-demographic data, individual information, primary oral health assessment, OHAT, EAT-10, and any symptom-sign correlation of dysphagia was derived from an interview with caregivers. Descriptive statistics were reported by the mean with SD and percentage. The mean age of participants was 83.33 (±4.15) years old. The average remaining teeth was 11.22 (±9.74). Seven participants (77.8 %) had fixed and/or removable dental substitution. Only 33.3 % had at least 20 functional teeth, while 22.2 % had at least four Posterior Occluding Pairs. Almost half of the participants (44.4 %) had periodontal disease, and two (22.2 %) had active dental caries. For the tongue pressure value, four (44.4 %) had a substandard tongue pressure value (less than 20 kPa) which implied the risk of dysphagia. While three out of these four cases can be detected for dysphagia signs by their caregivers using EAT-10. For the OHAT assessment, 55.6 % of the caregivers had similar OHAT scores with dental professionals. The differences between caregivers and dental professionals in their OHAT assessment were in the sections of oral cleanliness, the status of natural teeth, and the quantity of saliva, while the largest frequency of agreements were lips, dentures, and dental pain. The results showed that the oral health of the patients with dementia is not so good as almost half of the participants have a problem with periodontal disease and 70% have less than 20 natural teeth. Also almost 80 % have less than four occluding pairs. However, caregivers have the potential in dysphagia early detection and the ability in oral health assessment which indicate the need for further study and to develop a training program for caregivers.
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of Palaseal® on surface roughness of acrylic resins which passed different polishing techniques. One hundred eighty heat-polymerized polymethymethacrylate specimens
were fabricated and finished with abrasive sandpaper. Then they were randomly equally divided into six groups. A control group (N) was neither polished nor Palaseal® coated. The others were experimental groups as follows: No polishing with Palaseal® coating (NC), pumice and Tripoli polishing without coating (P), pumice and Tripoli polishing with coating (PC), silicone points polishing without coating (S), silicone points polishing with coating (SC). Changes in surface roughness were measured with a profilometer and calculated Ra of specimens. SEM was utilized for surface visualization and surface roughness confirmation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) were used for statistical analysis. Group (N) had the highest mean Ra value (670.5 nm.) whereas group (PC) had the lowest mean Ra value (241.9 nm.). Groups (N, NC) had the mean Ra value (670.5, 394.5 nm.) significantly (P<0.01) more than groups (S, SC) (300.1, 254.9 nm.) and groups (P, PC) (283.2, 241.9 nm.) respectively. Differences of the mean Ra values between Palaseal® uncoated groups (N, P, S) and coated groups (NC, PC, SC) were statistically significant (P<0.01). Lastly, there was interaction between surface polishing and Palaseal® coating. Palaseal® coating on heat polymerized acrylic resins enhanced surface smoothness of acrylic resins polished with pumice and Tripoli and silicone points, including finished with abrasive sandpaper.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess associations between occluso-proximal caries related factors and success/failure of class II restorations in mandibular primary molar teeth using the SMART technique and to assess failure characteristics of Class II restorations using the SMART technique in mandibular primary molar teeth. Methods: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee at The Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University.
Children aged 3-5 years old having dentinal caries on occluso-proximal surfaces were recruited for this study. One hundred and forty-one teeth were examined for clinical information regarding caries lesions and related factors. Dental models were cast from putty silicone impressions. For all selected teeth, soft caries was removed by spoon excavators and then restored with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP Extra capsule, GC Corp., Japan) by dental therapists as part of an ongoing regular project. Clinical examination for ART scores was conducted at 6-month follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: The success rate of SMART Class II restorations was 70.7 %. Based on the multivariable logistic regression model, occluso-distal lesion in the primary mandibular first molar, interproximal gingival inflammation and interproximal space were statistically significantly associated with higher failure rate of SMART Class II restorations. Loss of restoration was the most common failure for the restorations. Conclusions: For SMART Class II restorations having an occluso-distal lesion in primary first molars, having adjacent interproximal gingival inflammation and having interproximal space were more likely to fail in SMART Class II restorations.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the consistency and time consumed of the Community Orthodontic Treatment Need (COTN) index that was developed by researchers from the Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla
University compared with the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The samples consisted of 80 students (18 males and 62 females) aged 15 to 20 years (17.6±1.6 years) in Hat Yai, Songkhla. The samples were examined with DAI
and COTN indexes by orthodontist, standardized and well-trained general dentist and dental nurse. Statistical analysis included the Kappa coefficient and paired t-test. Result: Both indexes had good consistency between examiners but COTN was more consistent than DAI. The inter-examiner consistency between orthodontist and general dentist was higher than for orthodontist and dental nurse (Kappa of DAI=0.709 and 0.618, Kappa of COTN=0.717 and 0.623, respectively). When comparing the times consumed between DAI and COTN indexes, the results revealed no significant difference in time consumption between the orthodontist and general dentist (P>0.05) but dental nurse used significantly more time to examine both indexes than orthodontist (P<0.01). In addition, dental nurse used significantly less time with COTN than DAI (P=0.001). This study concluded that well-trained dental nurse and general dentist were able to determine orthodontic treatment need using both indexes. Higher consistency and less time consumption were found when performing with the COTN index compared to the DAI index.
The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength of MTA Fillapex to AH Plus and CU Sealer in simulated immature root models. The models were created from forty-five extracted single root premolars and
randomly divided into three groups of fifteen each. Root canals were obturated with gutta-percha and one of thefollowing sealers: MTA Fillapex, AH Plus and CU Sealer. After immersion in phosphate buffered saline for twenty-eight days, the roots were cut perpendicularly to the long axis to create 3-mm thick slices from the apical end of roots. The push-out bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined under scanning electron microscopy. The highest mean of push-out bond strength was found in AH Plus group, followed by MTA Fillapex and CU Sealer sequentially at p<0.05. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, MTA Fillapex showed less push-out bond strength to root dentin when compared to AH Plus sealer.
The aims of this study were to compare the effects of antacid and remineralizing agent on the prevention of enamel surface loss and microhardness of enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid. Flat specimens on buccal enamel
surface of 60 extracted human premolar teeth were prepared. Each specimen was subjected to microhardness measurement to obtain a baseline value. The specimens were allocated into 3 groups (n=20) consisting of the
treatments: antacid, remineralizing agent and control group. All specimens were exposed to hydrochloric acid for 2 minutes. Then the specimens were either immersed in antacid for 2 minutes or applied remineralizing agent for 3 minutes depending on the experimental groups. Finally, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours. The process was repeated for 5 cycles. The final microhardness and enamel surface loss were assessed. The data were analyzed statistically with the level of significance at p<0.05. Using Paired T-test to compare baseline and final microhardness within group, Welch ANOVA and Game-Howell multiple comparisons to compare baseline and final microhardness between groups, One-way ANOVA and Post hoc Turkey’s test to compare enamel surface loss between groups. The final microhardness of all groups was significantly lower than the baseline microhardness (p<0.001). Compared to control group, the final microhardness was significantly higher when using antacid and remineralizing agent (p=0.001 and 0.003 respectively) and the enamel surface loss was significantly lower when using antacid and remineralizing agent (p<0.001 and 0.006 respectively). The final microhardness and enamel surface loss between the antacid and remineralizing agent groups were not significantly different. From the result of this study, the effects of antacid and remineralizing agent on the prevention of enamel surface loss and microhardness of human enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid were not significantly different.
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of calcium silicate based-material and glass ionomer cement on root dentin demineralization resistance. Sixty root dentin specimens from human permanent premolars were prepared to obtain standardized cavities and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15): group1-negative control (no restoration), group 2- conventional glass ionomer cement, group 3-resin modified glass ionomer cement and group 4- calcium silicate based-materials. The surface knoop microhardness test was performed on root dentin at 50, 100, 150 and 200 μm from restoration margin. The specimens were subjects to pH-cycling model then, surface knoop microhardness test was measured again. Two specimens from each group were randomly selected to assess mineral composition in dentin adjacent to restorative materials using energy dispersive X-ray pectroscopy. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test, repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test with the level of significance at p<0.05. Surface microhardness loss of root dentin from group 4 was significantly lower than the other groups in every distance from restoration margin. Surface microhardness loss of root dentin from group 2 and 3 was not significantly different but the surface microhardness loss from both groups was significantly different from group 1. From the results of this study, root dentin restored with calcium silicate based-material had higher demineralization resistance than root dentin restored with glass ionomer cement until 200 μm from restoration margin.
Inflammatory complications following third molar surgery are a concern of patients. Dexamethasone, one of the corticosteroids, possesses an anti-inflammatory property that can reduce inflammation. However, there is no consensus on an appropriate administration. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory outcomes of 4 mg dexamethasone given by pre-operative submucosal injection after the surgical removal of third molars. A split-mouth, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out with 17 participants (34 impacted teeth) having bilateral identical lower third molar impaction. Submucosal injection of either 4 mg dexamethasone or placebo was given after anesthetization of the inferior alveolar nerve according to random assignment. The time interval between the first and second operation was a 4week period. Single surgeon, assessor, and data analyst were arranged and they did not know of drug use. Onset and duration of local anesthetic were collected. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3 and 7, pain intensity was recorded using a visual analog scale. At baseline and postoperative days 1, 3 and 7, swelling and maximal mouth opening were measured. No effect of dexamethasone on swelling and mouth opening was detected when compared to control. However, dexamethasone injection group showed significantly less pain than control at every time points, p<0.05. The quality of life in the physical domain was better in dexamethasone injection group than control. For third molar surgery, 4 mg dexamethasone did not demonstrate a benefit in anti-swelling or improve mouth opening. However, it significantly reduced pain and improved quality of life.